Relevant notes and citations provided to TED by Tim Harford.
For Vera Brandes’s recollection of events, listen to the BBC Radio 4 documentary "For One Night Only: The Cologne Concert."
Also see Corinna Da Fonseca-Wollheim's article "A Jazz Night to Remember: The unique magic of Keith Jarrett's 'The Köln Concert'" in The Wall Street Journal.
And check out p. 71 of Ian Carr's book, Keith Jarrett – The Man And His Music.
The study of difficult fonts is Diemand-Yauman, C., et al. "Fortune favors the bold (and the italicized): Effects of disfluency on educational outcomes." Cognition (2010), DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2010.09.012
Shelley Carson's research into of attentional filters is published as Shelley Carson, Daniel Higgins and Jordan Peterson "Decreased Latent Inhibition Is Associated With Increased Creative Achievement in High-Functioning Individuals" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2003, Vol. 85, No. 3, 499–506 DOI: 10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.529.
On adding randomness in complex optimization problems, start with the Wikipedia entry on "Simulated Annealing" -- or there is an excellent discussion in Scott Page's The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools and Societies.
The Katherine Phillips murder mystery study is: Katherine W. Philips, Katie A. Liljenquist and Margaret A. Neale "Is the Pain Worth the Gain? The Advantages and Liabilities of Agreeing With Socially Distinct Newcomers." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Vol 35 No 3 March 2009 p. 336-350
On the Oblique Strategies deck, I’m indebted to Brian Eno for describing his methods to me in person in February 2015.
On Carlos Alomar’s reaction to the deck, listen to Simon Armitage "Oblique Strategies," a documentary first broadcast on BBC Radio 4 on May 12, 2014.