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Speaker's Footnotes

Relevant notes and citations provided to TED by Katie Hinde.

  • 00:31

    "Milk is why mammals suck."

    The synthesis of milk by mammary glands is the defining characteristic of mammals, it’s how we got our scientific name! For over 200 million years, natural selection has shaped mother’s milk. This adaptation has enabled mammals to live on every continent, sometimes in conditions that would otherwise be deadly to babies.

    Pond, C. M. (1977). The significance of lactation in the evolution of mammals. Evolution, 177-199.

    Lefèvre, C. M., Sharp, J. A., & Nicholas, K. R. (2010). Evolution of lactation: ancient origin and extreme adaptations of the lactation system. Annual review of genomics and human genetics, 11, 219-238.

  • 01:49

    "Babies survive and thrive because their mother's milk is food, medicine and signal."

    Hinde K, German JB. Food in an Evolutionary Context: Insights from Mother’s Milk. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2012;92(11):10.1002/jsfa.5720. doi:10.1002/jsfa.5720.

    Neville MC, Anderson SM, McManaman JL, et al. Lactation and Neonatal Nutrition: Defining and Refining the Critical Questions. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia. 2012;17(2):167-188. doi:10.1007/s10911-012-9261-5.

  • 03:48

    "Globally, nine out of 10 women will have at least once child in her lifetime."

    United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2013). World Fertility Report 2012 (United Nations publication).

  • 04:05

    "Recent research has shown that milk doesn't just grow the body, it fuels behavior and shapes neurodevelopment."

    Catalani, Assia, et al. "Maternal corticosterone effects on hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis regulation and behavior of the offspring in rodents." Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 35.7 (2011): 1502-1517.

    Hinde, Katie, et al. "Cortisol in mother’s milk across lactation reflects maternal life history and predicts infant temperament." Behavioral Ecology (2014): aru186.

  • 04:09

    "In 2015, researchers discovered that the mixture of breast milk and baby saliva -- specifically, baby saliva -- causes a chemical reaction that produces hydrogen peroxide that can kill staph and salmonella."

    Al-Shehri, Saad S., et al. "Breastmilk-saliva interactions boost innate immunity by regulating the oral microbiome in early infancy." PloS one 10.9 (2015): e0135047.

  • 04:30

    "The biological recipe of milk can be different when produced for sons or daughters."

    Bernstein, Robin M., and Katie Hinde. "Bioactive factors in milk across lactation: Maternal effects and influence on infant growth in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)." American journal of primatology 78.8 (2016): 838-850.

    Twigger, Alecia-Jane, et al. "Gene expression in breastmilk cells is associated with maternal and infant characteristics." Scientific reports 5 (2015): 12933.

    Hinde, Katie, et al. "Holsteins favor heifers, not bulls: biased milk production programmed during pregnancy as a function of fetal sex." PloS one 9.2 (2014): e86169.

  • 05:04

    "Increasingly common medical conditions like obesity, endocrine disorders, C-section and preterm births all can disrupt the underlying biology of lactation."

    Hobbs, Amy J., et al. "The impact of caesarean section on breastfeeding initiation, duration and difficulties in the first four months postpartum." BMC pregnancy and childbirth 16.1 (2016): 90.

    Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A. "Does Insulin Explain the Relation between Maternal Obesity and Poor Lactation Outcomes? An Overview of the Literature." Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal 7.2 (2016): 407-414.

  • 05:31

    "Today, only one in five babies in the United States is born in a baby-friendly hospital."

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael, Josefa L. Martinez, and Sofia Segura-Pérez. "Impact of the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative on breastfeeding and child health outcomes: a systematic review." Maternal & child nutrition (2016). 

  • 07:02

    "Too often historical traumas and implicit biases sit in the space between a new mother and her clinician."

    Dodgson, Joan E., and Roxanne Struthers. "Indigenous women’s voices: Marginalization and health." Journal of Transcultural Nursing 16.4 (2005): 339-346.

    Asiodu, Ifeyinwa, and Jacquelyn H. Flaskerud. "Got milk? A look at breastfeeding from an African American perspective." Issues in mental health nursing 32.8 (2011): 544-546.

  • 08:15

    "In the NICU, when infants are born early or sick or injured, milk or bioactive constituents in milk can be critically important."

    Renfrew, Mary J., et al. "Breastfeeding promotion for infants in neonatal units: a systematic review." Child: care, health and development 36.2 (2010): 165-178.

    Neville MC, Anderson SM, McManaman JL, et al. Lactation and Neonatal Nutrition: Defining and Refining the Critical Questions. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia. 2012;17(2):167-188. doi:10.1007/s10911-012-9261-5.

  • 08:23

    "Environments or ecologies, or communities where there's high risk of infectious disease, breast milk can be incredibly protective."

    Sellen, Daniel W. "Evolution of infant and young child feeding: implications for contemporary public health." Annu. Rev. Nutr. 27 (2007): 123-148.

    Martin, Melanie A., et al. "Conflict or congruence? Maternal and infant-centric factors associated with shorter exclusive breastfeeding durations among the Tsimane." Social Science & Medicine 170 (2016): 9-17.

  • 08:31

    "Where there are emergencies like storms and earthquakes, when the electricity goes out, when safe water is not available, breast milk can keep babies fed and hydrated."

    Gribble, Karleen D., et al. "Supporting breastfeeding in emergencies: protecting women's reproductive rights and maternal and infant health." Disasters 35.4 (2011): 720-738.

    Callaghan, William M., et al. "Health concerns of women and infants in times of natural disasters: lessons learned from Hurricane Katrina." Maternal and child health journal 11.4 (2007): 307-311.

  • 09:15

    "We can all do a better job of supporting the diversity of moms raising their babies in a diversity of ways."

    Hrdy, Sarah Blaffer. Mothers and others. Harvard University Press, 2011.

    Richardson, Sarah S., Cynthia R. Daniels, Matthew W. Gillman, Janet Golden, Rebecca Kukla, Christopher Kuzawa, and Janet Rich-Edwards. "Don't Blame the Mothers." Nature 512 (2014): 131-132.