Relevant notes and citations provided to TED by Adam Galinsky.
"A range of acceptable behavior"
The idea of latitudes of acceptance and rejection originally comes from research on attitudes and persuasion. Sherif, M., & Hovland, C. I. (1961). Social judgment: Assimilation and contrast effects in communication and attitude change Yale University Press
"Your power determines your range"
This article provides an overview of how power and status liberate or constrain behavior. Magee, J. C. & Galinsky, A. D. (2008). Social hierarchy: The self-reinforcing nature of power and status. Academy of Management Annals, 2, 351-398
"Power comes in lots of forms"
This chapter describes sources of power. French Jr., J. R. P.., & Raven, B. H. (1959). The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power (pp. 118–149). Ann Arbor, MI: Institute of Social Research, University of Michigan
"Many of you have the heard the phrase "the double bind" and connected it with one thing -- and that's gender"
Describes the double bind that woman face. *Catalyst *(2007). The double-bind dilemma for women in leadership: Damned if you do, doomed if you don’t (Catalyst Publication Code D68). Retrieved from Catalyst
"What looks like a gender difference..."
Friend & Foe Chapter 4 describes how sex differences are often power differences in disguise. Galinsky, A., & Schweitzer, M. (2015). Friend & Foe: When to cooperate, when to compete and how to succeed at both Penguin Random House
"When they advocate for others"
Presents evidence of the benefits of advocating for others. Bowles, H. R., Babcock, L., & McGinn, K. L. (2005). Constraints and triggers: Situational mechanics of gender in negotiation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(6), 951-965; Amanatullah, E. T., & Morris, M. W. (2010). Negotiating gender roles: Gender differences in assertive negotiating are mediated by women’s fear of backlash and attenuated when negotiating on behalf of others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(2), 256-267.
"When I take your perspective and think about what you really want, you're more willing to give me what I really want."
Demonstrates how perspective-taking helps negotiators get better outcomes. Galinsky, A. D., Maddux, W. W., Gilin, D., & White, J. B. (2008). Why it pays to get inside the head of your opponent: The differential effects of perspective taking and empathy in negotiations. Psychological Science, 19(4), 378-384.
"Perspective-taking is hard to do"
Demonstrates the difficulty we have in taking other’s perspectives. Epley, N., Keysar, B., Van Boven, L., & Gilovich, T. (2004). Perspective taking as egocentric anchoring and adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(3), 327-339.
"So let's do a little experiment"
The E experiment. Hass, R. G. (1984). Perspective taking and self-awareness: Drawing an E on your forehead. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(4), 788-798.
"We particularly get self-focused in a crisis"
Demonstrates how anxiety diminishes perspective-taking. Todd, A. R., Forstmann, M., Burgmer, P., Brooks, A. W., & Galinsky, A. D. (2015). Anxious and egocentric: How specific emotions influence perspective taking. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144(2), 374-391.
The bank robbery story
"My research shows that when you give someone a choice among options, it lowers their defenses and their more likely to accept your offer"
Demonstrates that offering a choice leads to better outcomes and less resistance. Leonardelli, G. J., Gu, J., McRuer, G., Galinsky, A. D., & Medvec, V. (2015). Negotiating with a velvet hammer: Multiple equivalent simultaneous offers. Manuscript under review. Also see Medvec, V. H. & Galinsky, A. D. (2005). Putting more on the table: How making multiple offers can increase the final value of the deal. Negotiation
"When we advocate for others, we expand our range in our own eyes and the eyes of others"
In a group meeting, one way to lower the risk of speaking up is agree with the point of an important person but expand on it and explain why you agree with them; this allows you to express expertise and to gain allies.
"Ask for advice"
Gives an overview of the benefits of asking for advice, Liljenquist, K. A., & Galinsky, A. D. (2007). Turn your adversary into your advocate. Negotiation, 10(5), 1-3
"Competent ... but also likable"
How asking for advice can solve the self-promotion double bind. Liljenquist, K. A. (2010). Resolving the impression management dilemma: The strategic benefits of soliciting others for advice (Doctoral dissertation).
"But Lizzie Wolf has shown that when we frame our strong emotions as passion, the condemnation of our crying disappears for both men and women."
Evidence for the benefits of reframing of strong emotions as passion. Wolf, E. B., Lee, J. J., Sah, S., & Brooks, A. W. (2016). Managing perceptions of distress at work: Reframing emotion as passion. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 137, 1-1