Relevant references and citations — with detailed annotations — provided to TED by Sheryl Sandberg.
Note: Sheryl Sandberg supplied these annotated footnotes in February 2014.
Makers: Women Who Make America, PBS, 2013
This documentary does a remarkable job of telling the history of the modern women’s movement in the United States. It reminds us how far we have come and how many women — and men — have contributed to the fight for equality.
"Millennium Development Goals Report," United Nations, 2013
In 2000, the United Nations member states and other international organizations committed to helping achieve eight international development goals — known as The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) — by 2015. With less than a year to the target date, there has been significant progress made across these goals. But the UN’s 2013 MDG report reveals how far we are from achieving the third goal, to “promote gender equality and empower women.” Only two out of 130 developing countries have achieved gender parity across all levels of education. In every developing region, women tend to hold less secure jobs than men and receive fewer benefits. While quota systems have helped to increase the share of women in the world’s parliaments, the numbers remain low. The report proves what we know: "Whether in the public or private sphere, from the highest levels of government decision-making to households, women continue to be denied equal opportunity with men."
Tiffani Lennon et al., "Benchmarking Women's Leadership in the United States," Colorado Women's College at the University of Denver, 2013
Across all of the 14 sectors analyzed, this report found that women are underpaid and underrepresented in leadership, regardless of their performance.
Note: This report was an update of one published in 2009 in a partnership between the Colorado Women’s College and The White House Project. See that original 2009 report.
Katrin Elborgh-Woytek et al., "Women, Work, and the Economy," International Monetary Fund, September 2013
This IMF report outlines some of the institutional barriers to gender equality and presents a number of policy recommendations to help unleash the full potential of the female labor force.
Olivia Morgan and Karen Skelton (Editors), "A Woman’s Nation Pushes Back from the Brink," The Shriver Report, 2014
This is an important investigation into the millions of American women who are “doing it all and barely scraping by.” The report details public policy recommendations — including paid leave and affordable child care — to support these women's dual roles as breadwinners and caregivers.
Sheryl Sandberg, Lean In, Knopf, 2013
The response to this TED Talk inspired me to write Lean In. The book expands on the messages in my talk and includes personal stories, research on gender differences and practical advice to help women achieve their goals.
Jennifer L. Lawless and Richard L. Fox, "Men Rule: The Continued Under-Representation of Women in U.S. Politics," Women and Politics Institute, School of Public Affairs at American University, January 2012
There are many sources that show that women systematically underestimate their own abilities. Here’s just one example: The Women and Politics Institute found that women are much less likely than men to think that they are qualified to run for office, even though they share similar levels of political exposure and experience. In fact, women are more than twice as likely as men to rate themselves as “not at all qualified” to run for public office.
Negotiation is a skill that all women need to master. To help you get started, LeanIn.org partnered with Stanford Graduate School of Business professor Margaret Neale to create a short lecture which offers a simple framework for approaching negotiations. Check out the video and a helpful discussion guide.
Marianne Cooper, "For Women Leaders, Likability and Success Hardly Go Hand-in-Hand," Harvard Business Review, April 20, 2013
This is a great piece by Marianne Cooper, the lead researcher on Lean In.
Kathleen L. McGinn and Nicole Tempest, "Heidi Roizen," Harvard Business School, January 2000
I talk about the Heidi/Howard study in more detail in Lean In and also share some strategies, based on research, to help women navigate this problem of likability.
Joan C. Williams and Rachel Dempsey, What Works for Women at Work, NYU Press, 2014
This is a practical guide for overcoming four common patterns of gender bias.
Arlie Hochschild and Anne Machung, The Second Shift: Working Families and the Revolution at Home, Penguin Books, 2012
The Second Shift explains the double burden that working mothers face — the labor they perform in housework and childcare in addition to their paid jobs.
Clay Parker, "Stay-at-Home Dads: We Are Leading Men," LeanIn.org, August 1, 2013
Parker wrote this great piece on why he’s proud to hold the title of "stay-at-home dad."
Sharon Meers and Joanna Strober, Getting to 50/50, Viva Editions, 2013
Getting to 50/50 is a must-read for working couples. Meers and Strober explain that everyone in the family wins when couples are equal caregivers and breadwinners — and provides step-by-step advice to help you get there. Meers also wrote a great article for LeanIn.org called "The Secret to an Equal Marriage."
John and Eileen Donahoe, "We Leaned into our Marriage," LeanIn.org, July 15, 2013
I also love this piece from eBay CEO John Donahoe and his wife, Eileen, the US Ambassador to the UN Human Rights Council, in which they share the five things that make their partnership work.
Young women and men are our best hope for a more equal future. In the fall of 2013, LeanIn.org launched Lean In on Campus to encourage students at universities around the world to organize Lean In Circles, small peer groups which meet regularly to learn and grow together. These Circles are one way to drive change and support each other.
And to support these young women, the spring after I gave my TED Talk, I gave the commencement speech at Barnard College.
Christine Lagarde, "Dare the Difference," Finance & Development, June 2013
The laws of economics, decades of research and indeed common sense tell us that empowering women will fuel the global economy, increase companies’ productivity and deliver important social benefits. Lagarde summarizes some of the key benefits here.