Tamathy Stage Posted 11 months ago What form of renewable energy has or will have the lowest impact on biodiversity? I've glimpsed through the discussion, and I'm surprised no one has brought up geo-exchange. It is different from the geothermal mentioned a few times in this feed, as it's not a means of generating electricity, rather a way to heat and cool buildings. It uses the constant temperature of the earth beneath the frost line as a source/sink for temperature regulation. A variation of the technology uses water as the source/sink. The new heat exchangers can now keep a building at room temperature without any other energy source besides the electricity to run the pumps and thermostat. They have even progressed to using heat collected from buildings in the summer to heat water. It has more potential to lower co2 levels than wind and solar, and can be more universally installed. With the new advances in drilling geo-exchange systems can be installed under existing parking lots and with a smaller surface area. There may be some set-backs (initial cost, sometimes increases property "footprint," difficult to install in urban areas), but no energy source will be perfect.