mark raymond Posted over 2 years ago Mark Raymond: Victims of the city The points I made about the 'typologies' ; skyscrapers, shopping malls, suburbs and highways relate to the fact that in the context of the majority of contemporary urban conditions they are favoured in relation to types of space and place making - functional or otherwise - and seemingly at the expense of other types of space or place which are arguably more socially equitable and which would contribute to a better society by encouraging greater participation and interaction. Towers can be highly efficient in sustainable, ecological and on many other terms but the high capital cost required for their development frequently results in a premium being placed on the cost of their occupation and consequently the reinforcement of social division and social polarisation. With regard to shopping malls, It is not the issues of retail choice or of convenience that are relevant here but the potential through design to offer alternative models which may obviate the exclusivity - or even sense of exclusivity - that access to malls can so often generate. More consideration of types of space, their accessibility, their location and greater effort to encourage greater participation in public spaces by all regardless of economic status would assist in reducing the increasing sense of social alienation and polarisation increasingly evident in society. Architecture, urbanism, landscape architecture offer opportunities through design to address this issue and there are many examples of where design strategies have proven highly successful in this regard.