Shahzad Alam

Program Coordinator, New Era Teacher Training Centre

This conversation is closed.

Schooling must develop in the students the capabilities required for being engaged in a life-long process of learning.

We are at a very critical juncture in history. We have resources available to us unimaginable in the past- financial resources, knowledge, technology, human resources, wealth of experience etc. We are also facing crisis very unique to our age. Everything we thought we knew about ourselves and our universe is constantly evolving and/or changing.

The most important role schools can play now is to prepare individuals who know how to learn and who take ownership of their own learning and development of the society around them. The schools themselves need to be in the process of constant learning and they also need to learn to create environment where individuals can learn to learn- both individually and collectively.

The question to ask ourselves are: what changes are required in the structure of schools? How can schools start focusing more on capacity building rather than information accumulation? What kind of environment encourages ownership in learning? How can schools be themselves involved in learning?

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    Nov 12 2013: I believe human curiosity is innate and that provides an impetus to spend our lives wondering and questioning - some more than others - and, hopefully, enjoying a lifetime of learning through those processes.

    As for effective and relevant reform, the very first thing to do is scrap the outdated employment mandate that is at the core of virtually every school curriculum on the planet. Instead,replace it with one that works with each and every student to first identify their strengths, weaknesses and personal interests and then work within that framework of knowledge to support each and every student in finding their own level of achievement and participation within their respective communities.

    In other words, if we fully and sincerely invest the time, resources and money in our children's innate curiosity then who knows what wonders they might manifest?
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      Nov 13 2013: I completely agree that by nature human beings have thirst for knowledge. However, this potential needs to be nurtured and we need to learn how to learn in a systematic way. Science has a lot to offer in teaching us the methods of inquiry.

      I also agree that the economic activity have taken a central place in human existence and the "employment mandate" which drives economic activity has become the very driving force of our education system.

      How does a teacher identify strengths, weaknesses, interests and talents of students? What is the process?
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        Nov 13 2013: Of course what I envision fist requires a sincere commitment of resources in every sense of the word so this is all fanciful at best.. Having said that, I feel the basic teacher requirement would be the ability to establish rapport - meaning good listening and communication skills - and all the rest should follow.

        As usual class size will always be an issue, but only for the bean counters. To adequately assess the WIST - weaknesses, interests, strengths, talents - of individual students an ongoing rapport is required and a continuity of connection between the teacher and the student. In other words, a tutoring structure with 1:1 interactions with whatever number of students a teacher finds they can manage, sometimes in small groups, sometimes 1:1 . I suspect the limit would be in the 8:1 or 10:1 range since these numbers have been found to work well in support and therapy groups.
        There is a wealth of information regarding the ages and signs of changes in the student such as mental, psychological and reasoning development that can used to prepare for subsequent stages of learning as well as identifying and facilitating the students' current WIST.
        A huge barrier will probably be the home where the attitudes and behaviour of parents and siblings can have unexpected consequences - prejudices, abuse, neglect, ridicule are just some of all too common familial issues - that will impact upon both a teacher's and a student's learning processes.
        Other factors such as diet, exercise and learning environment are also relevant but I suspect not as important as the above.

        but if all those concerns can be properly addressed then the student will probably be the teacher as much as the designated instructor.
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          Nov 13 2013: Class size is certainly an important area. Now a days with schools becoming a big source of business the classrooms are stuffed with 40-50 students. All that can happen in such classroom structure is accumulation of information. Such large numbers also restrict the relationship between the teacher and students. Only a few get to actively participate and the rest remain passive listeners at best. Small numbers, as you mention, allow for close relationship which is very important for learning. In small numbers, students learn from each other and not just from the teacher.
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    Nov 13 2013: I feel that many people have difficulty overcoming a certain obsession with conformity. Many people think that is the real purpose of school--it's to make us all alike, get along with each other, follow the rules, do things the right way and also get the same basic knowledge before we get to "go out in the world." Why? There is ample evidence that there is more knowledge left to discover and create in the world than what we already know. Why do we place these limits on youth?
    Why do people have to wait to finish school to contribute to society? There are many examples of very young children contributing to society but we pathologically overlook that. We choose to value conformity and certainty instead.

    This obsession with conformity coupled with our pathological fear of uncertainty makes it a huge challenge to overcome. I have encountered many young parents who have a strong sense of the inadequacies of the education they grew up with and they express a desire for something different and more relevant for their own children. But when it comes down to allowing a really different path to be taken, even those parents tend to retreat back into what's familiar--usually citing a fear that their kids won't get what others are getting or what they need. It's a tough one. And this is just at the level of everyday individuals....If we get to the power-brokers and those who control all the funding then we have a whole other set of challenges to overcome.

    Schooling as we know it is rapidly becoming irrelevant. Maybe we should just let it fade so that alternatives can rise up?
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      Nov 14 2013: Contributing to society must in fact be part of the education as only then will the students be truly able to evaluate their understanding and develop their capabilities to contribute to the betterment of society. Contributing to society and individual development must happen simultaneously. For this to happen, the structure of schools, as they exist today, must certainly fade away and be replaced by new structures.

      However, many of the individuals who will bring about such changes are still participating in the current system of education and therefore they too cannot be overlooked at the moment and we must try and do whatever we can to salvage their development.

      Perhaps as more and more courageous people take the new path we will reach a tipping point that will then slowly make the current system of education obsolete.
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        Nov 14 2013: Actually I think the current system is already obsolete. I feel that maybe some evolution is happening only because these kinds of ideas we are talking about are becoming more acceptable in the mainstream. We are not the lunatics we used to be. So maybe little by little new structures will become more prominent and more widely accepted. It's probably inevitable but I just wish it could all happen more quickly.

        About the contribution to society issue...I totally agree it needs to be part of education. What bothers me a lot is that adults don't really take that sort of involvement by younger children seriously. We often go in with the assumption that we have to decide what the contribution will be and we have to structure everything for kids; we have to choose for them because, well, they are just kids after all. It's well-intentioned, but I feel it's also wrong-headed. This is one of the barriers to real change.

        We adults have to open ourselves up to the possibility that even very young children can chart their own course when it comes to learning and contributing to society. It's amazing what can happen when we don't tell kids what and how to think all the time. Thanks Shahzad for bringing up the idea....
  • Nov 13 2013: The rabbit saw the certificate, he at once ran out of the scene to save his life.And during the process of giving and taking the certificate the busy wolf could not notice what had happened.

    The hungry wolf again went to the lion and narrated the whole incidence and asked him "How do you prey your food?","What do you do when certificate is demanded?

    The lion said "When I pounce on my prey with my paws fiercely, that is the proof itself that I am lion"."My Action itself is the certificate of myself"
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      Nov 13 2013: I completely agree with you that degrees and certificates have become much more important than learning. Could you please elaborate on what this story conveys?
  • Nov 13 2013: Hi Dear Alam:).I am glad to see a topic which is aboutchildren's life-long learning.
    But to be honest,the fir st thing we should be aware:most of learnings only work in childhood.If people missed the period to learn,they will lose learning whole life.For the point,I am intersted in observing children learning,and of course I do observe adults learning too,as well as myself:).

    Another thing we need to be aware of learning materials to help children to shape their values in life.It is very important.It deserves to keep on searching how,what for that.

    It is always good to keep discussing the topics about education.The much you do the better we will know.Thank you.
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      Nov 13 2013: No doubt, education is such an important topic that we certainly need to "keep discussing the topics about education".

      Certainly, when learning starts at childhood the results are very different and a lot of habits of learning and patterns of behavior do take shape in early childhood. However, to get good teachers for the children right now we have to work closely with youth who did not get a good foundation in childhood.

      I have been working with junior youth and youth for the past 10 years and believe that a lot can still be done with them.

      Education imparting values is certainly a very important area and one with a lot of controversies. Another challenge is also integrating the education of values with the education of sciences and arts. Would you like to expand on what kind of values are important to learn and how can they be learnt?
  • Nov 12 2013: Curiosity is part of human nature. Schools don't need to teach children to learn -- they need to allow it.

    That said, if the sole purpose of school were to encourage learning, it would have to be completely redesigned. Mandatory courses, schedules, age-based sorting would all have to go. It would be like an academy in the ancient sense, or a noisy library, where students come to learn and socialize and collaborate and take elective classes without any official structure. In fact, there are schools like this today -- search up "Sudbury school" and "Democratic free school" on Wikipedia.

    (In an ideal situation, any degree of compulsory attendance (even, for example, being required to spend a number of unscheduled hours per week at school) would be unnecessary. From a young age children could be socialized into the "culture of learning," being sent by their parents to some kiddie-academy, so that when they are older they will go to the real academy -- which would contain a few outlets of entertainment, not just studying -- voluntarily.)

    However, the main purpose of modern schools is not to enlighten individuals, but to benefit the national economy. This purpose hasn't change since the Industrial Age, when compulsory state education was first conceived. The meaning of "benefit the economy" has changed slightly, as businesses of the Digital Age value creativity more than those of the past. Nonetheless, it's clear that public schools exist primarily to accustom individuals to a working life.

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      Nov 13 2013: How can the schools "allow" learning? What does it mean in practice? Also what should be the "purpose of learning"?
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        Nov 13 2013: The purpose of learning is to make sense and understand--then it's up to the learner how and when to use their knowledge.

        You might check out the work of Harvard Project Zero and Making Thinking Visible for examples of what all this means in practice.

        Alot of those ideas are connected with the practices of early childhood education in Reggio Emilia, Italy. It's amazing and has been up and running for over 50 years--check it out. I went there once and amazed at how culturally ingrained the idea of the child as competent as a learner and a social being is in their city. Their practices have been adopted by others around the world and so there is a lot written about it.
      • Nov 13 2013: Teaching kids to learn is absurd, given that the urge to learn is natural; allowing learning means not doing anything beyond encouraging it, providing access to educational resources, and occasionally guiding the learner's inquiry.

        Obviously, not all children are eager learners -- that can be knocked out of them through political or religious indoctrination, or by the coerciveness of schools that force in-depth studying of subjects that may not interest them, among other things. But systematically teaching kids to learn is unnecessary if they have access to information, some interaction with adults, and an social environment that embraces intellectualism.
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    Nov 12 2013: There is a lot written on this question, as the primacy of equipping students for lifelong learning is pretty much universally accepted- that the focus of schools should be on such capacity building more than the shoveling in of facts. I do understand that in some countries shoveling in those facts remains peculiarly popular.

    Two resources in which you will find excellent ideas are Bransford's How People Learn and the Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences.

    As you are in teacher training, I think these would be a great place for you to start!

    A really fast response is to model and engage students from the earliest grades in inquiry, finding things out for themselves, thinking about the credibility of sources of information, taking notes and recording questions and ideas followed by pursuing those questions, and so forth. Students need to learn how to think about questions and problems rather than believing that the way you learn is to ask someone in authority to tell you the answer. One learns this by having questions posed and being expected to think and try to formulate possible answers, getting constructive feedback and advice on which areas of inquiry and argument need to be considered more critically and so forth.
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      Nov 13 2013: Thank you for the resources. I have started reading Bradford's How People Learn.

      As you mention, "students need to learn how to think about questions and problems". How important is "praxis" in learning or can we say that understanding can take place through theoretical inquiry and arguments only? What does this mean for the process of learning?
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        Nov 13 2013: People learn in the context of application. But if you are in teacher training, I expect you know this.

        You will find this covered well in both these references.
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    Nov 20 2013: Programs:
    Tai Chi
    Wing Chun
    Intricate dances of the world
    Bring a grandparent to school day
  • Nov 20 2013: Shazad, I really liked the list of things your father has taught you....these words of advice are foundations for success. Reading the posts, I felt the need to talk about the issues around competition in our education system and in life. I wonder if this concept is found in intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and how important it is that children develop intrinsic motivation in all areas of life. I find that this is sadly not the way society is though when success is measured by your material possessions or financial standing. I wondered what your thoughts are on the importance of developing intrinsic motivation in our young children and how this can be best achieved in today's fast paced and competitive society. It's something I struggle with in my teaching career on a daily basis.
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      Nov 21 2013: As you mention, developing intrinsic motivation in our students is very important. I think competition can sometimes limit our growth. We can become content with being better than others rather than striving to developing our potential to the fullest. It can also diminish the joy of learning if we constantly compare ourselves with other's potential. Also, motivation that comes from being better than others starts developing certain traits in us that are harmful- jealousy, self-righteousness, pride and we also becoming prone to using wrong methods to becoming better- cheating.

      How this can be done is also something that I am constantly learning as well. The consciousness of why they are learning is very important in this regard. If one is learning and developing capabilities to contribute to the advancement of civilization than one is motivated to continuously develop and finds joy in other's development as well.

      We human beings are attracted to beauty and order and this too can be a great motivation. When we read a poetry and learn to appreciate it's beauty we becoming motivated to understand different poetry and it's depth. Scientists are motivated to understand the order in the universe and being able to understand the diversity and order in the universe gives them joy and fuels their motivation to go deeper and find more order. Mathematics is all about representing the order and beauty in universe through beautiful equations. Sociologists are motivated to understand the order in our chaotic society and it's processes. Understanding is a joyful process and helping students find their motivation in these things in very important.
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      Nov 21 2013: Hi, Erina and Shahzad

      I’m not in any way professionally involved in education, but I love to read and think about general concepts regarding human behaviour. One of my general methods of approach is to simplify “problems” and search for analogies in other areas.

      Erina wrote: “I wondered what your thoughts are on the importance of developing intrinsic motivation in our young children and how this can be best achieved in today's fast paced and competitive society.”
      ...and I immediately had to think about the process of development shown by young primates.

      Young primates (and others species) Are initially occupied with two things: getting food and exploring the world. So to me, curiosity is an intrinsic motivator for a major part of their behaviour. They are not being educated at all except for two things: avoiding danger and knowing their position in society. Nobody is forcing them to learn how to crack a nut or how to use a stick as a tool. They learn those things in a later stage, when THEY are ready to learn those skills. And they learn it, just by being curious (or hungry)...

      I think, that today’s society is forcing the pace for the average youngster to develop. I think that we suppress their intrinsic motivation factor called curiosity through the method of reward and punishment.

      As far as I know, the only occurrence of deliberate punishment (bullying) by primates is to establish a hierarchy. As far as I know, the only occurrence of rewarding , done by primates, is to confirm a hierarchy.

      So today’s schools are primarily occupied with...
      ...forcing youngsters to act as we have learned from our own parents and teachers.

      I agree Shahzad, it is time to change the system.

      p.s. I love this spelling control tool ;-)
  • Nov 17 2013: Shahzad,

    In one of your comments you mentioned competition. You always compete with yourself but use others for an external ruler. That is why you want to be with other students as good or better than you to let you push yourself. I went through grades 1-12 with roughly 35 friends, one won the Science search (then called the Westinghouse) for the entire Nation. The college I went to in its entire history, there were 32 with 4.0 at graduation, 33rd was in my class and in the same major. Same thing happened in grad school.

    My father said three things to me
    1. do your best
    2. always know that there is always someone better
    3. never give up.
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      Nov 17 2013: It is very important to vie with oneself and become better today than I was yesterday and to understand more (depth and breadth of learning) today than I did before. We learn together with others- learn from them as well as contribute to their learning. Striving to help others advance is an inseparable aspect of advancing oneself. It is in this sense that I think competition ie becoming better than others, does not contribute to learning.
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    Nov 15 2013: Is competition, in any form, good? Is becoming better than others a motivating factor for advancing in our learning? What would be more fruitful- competition or cooperation? Do we all live in families where every member is competing for more resources, more care, more love, more attention etc? Can we imagine societies where competition doesn't exist? Can we visualize sustainable development and competition coexisting? Can we at end fight poverty and at other end encourage competition (survival of the fittest)? Can we learn to cooperate in all human endeavours? Should schools help students learn to create environment of cooperation and maintain it?
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      Nov 15 2013: When I read your remarks, it seems as if you like to put competition opposite of cooperation. I like to think that humans, individually and as a society, act as a dynamical system that contain both those entities. Intuitively, I think that they are both necessary assets. Competition started as a survival tool that put humans at their current place in the biological hierarchy. So did cooperation.

      Do you prefer water over fire?

      The only point that I tried to make in my previous post was the fact that modern society – especially in schools - does not seem to recognize the fact that competition has become the main motivating force for children to learn things. As a result, it seems that competition is incorporated in about every aspect of life, also in circumstances where competition is harmful.

      Lack of recognition is the keyword. Not competition.
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      Nov 15 2013: Ten questions in seven lines. I like that!

      Is competition, in any form, good?
      - Only when you are aware that you compete. Only when you are aware of the consequences for the looser.

      Is becoming better than others a motivating factor for advancing in our learning?
      - Yes.

      What would be more fruitful- competition or cooperation?
      - Water or fire?

      Do we all live in families where every member is competing for more resources, more care, more love, more attention etc?
      - Yes! In general this happens until a member of that family recognizes this situation and points out that sharing an cooperating is a better solution.

      Can we imagine societies where competition doesn't exist?
      - Personally I cannot. I love playing chess! ;-)

      Can we visualize sustainable development and competition coexisting?
      - I’m now thinking about things like “the solar car challenge”

      Can we at end fight poverty and at other end encourage competition (survival of the fittest)?
      1. The definition poverty contains a subjective component. It is only meaningful, in relation to wealth.
      2. Competition does not need to be encouraged. It is omnipresent
      3. I think that we – as humans – should be aware that survival of the fittest was a useful asset to have in the prehistory, but that we don’t need this anymore today in western society.

      Can we learn to cooperate in all human endeavors?
      - Yes, when we are aware that we need to cooperate. There is hardly a limit to the process of learning.

      Should schools help students learn to create environment of cooperation and maintain it?
      - Yes, I think that cooperation is a powerful tool.

      ps. I assume that your questions were to provoke my cooperation and not to challenge me ;-)
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        Nov 15 2013: Thank you for not seeing my question as me challenging you and that was certainly not my intention and I apologize if it seemed that way. I think competition and cooperation are important concepts to reflect on as they influence what we are learning and how.

        I completely agree with you that we do not need competition anymore in any society (not just western) and that cooperation is a powerful tool.

        In the context of learning, the question we need to ask ourselves is whether we still need to continue to learn to compete with the other species to ensure our survival. If yes, then we should not worry about the animals and plants that are getting extinct because of unbridled human activity. But if no, then we need to do away with it in all forms (don't know about sports). Competition in the past might have been a survival tool but I think the only survival tool for our future is to learn to live in harmony with nature.

        As far as this discussion is concerned let us not talk about sports as I too enjoy chess. Not because I like winning but because it tests my mind and makes it more sharp.

        - competition and cooperation to me is not like water and fire but like water and slow poison.
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          Nov 16 2013: I feel like being distracted from your initial topic and the question you put down in the title page:
          “The question to ask ourselves are: what changes are required in the structure of schools? How can schools start focusing more on capacity building rather than information accumulation? What kind of environment encourages ownership in learning? How can schools be themselves involved in learning?”

          Reading these questions I noticed that you did not to mention the role of schools regarding education in social behavior. I initially – accidentally - skipped a few steps in the effort of stating my point. I jumped to details. I will rephrase my point of view:

          I think that education in general - and at all levels - should simultaneously pay attention to (and educate in) the social, moral and ethical aspects of the areas of interest.

          As a result of better social education we can avoid that today’s students will spoil toxic waste on shores of developing countries by the time they are CEO of a chemical company. We can avoid that today’s students in finance, economics or whatever, will deforest complete countries and annihilate fauna when they finally hold key positions in business society.
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        Nov 21 2013: Dear Rene, I completely agree with we must pay attention to the social, moral and ethical aspects and in fact they must be integrated into the study of sciences and arts. This will ensure that the solutions we implement in one sphere does not end up harming the other aspects of life.
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    Nov 14 2013: Intriguing questions.

    I think that both schools and the average parents are mainly preparing kids to take part in a rat race called “living on this planet”. I think that this rat race is caused by our biological habit to establish a hierarchy. To me, this is the equivalent of fighting your way to a place in the pecking order. Having said this, I think that there is nothing fundamentally wrong with hierarchy in society or at schools.

    However: I think that hardly anyone on this planet is AWARE of the fact that he is participating in this competition on a daily basis. It has become a natural habit, taught to generations of children by generations of parents and teachers.

    I think that we have to teach children that there is competition and there is a hierarchy to be established, but that they have a choice, as adults, when to stop the competition. It should be enough for grownups to choose do the life they like and to choose the profession they are good at. You don’t need to dramatically change school systems to do this.

    We, ourselves should be aware when we are competing, and we should be aware that competing is OK as long as it is voluntary. This world is big enough to support all of us. (I hope)

    In the case of changing education systems, I think that we need consensus about the cause first. If we don’t find the real reason why things have to be changed, we might just be curing symptoms.
    • Nov 14 2013: "We, ourselves should be aware when we are competing, and we should be aware that competing is OK as long as it is voluntary." People need to realize that the quest to obtain status is a game, and that those who choose not to play aren't necessarily losers. Without that awareness any system wherein status is determined by wealth, occupation, influence, etc. is a religion.
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        Nov 15 2013: Or better yet, we need to learn to change the game and it's rules so that competition and the habits of thoughts it promotes may die out and be replaced by cooperation and habits of thoughts that promote cooperation.
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    Nov 14 2013: Naturally, it is important to set directions for schooling, but presently a more important question is not WHAT, but HOW. There is a superfluity of well-tailored ideas for schooling, but no one came up with specific solutions.

    As you described it, knowledge has a cumulative character. This is why schooling and parenting are processes that happen over a longer period of time, or - to be more precise - we learn unendingly till our last breath. I guess it would be much easier if we could profile schooling from the early stage. In this way we could sustain a healthy deal of interest in the subject and educate better specialists.

    Let's be honest, with our current pace of informational flow, it is impossible to be an erudite. We need to give up some of the general knowledge and dedicate our efforts and time to more specific subjects. I still believe intelligentsia proper is characterized by at least basic knowledge in the most fundamental areas, but it will be increasingly more difficult.
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      Nov 15 2013: Every "what" will have a different "how". Unless we have some understanding of what the purpose of schooling must be we cannot even start thinking of how schooling must be. I completely agree that schooling is a process and that our understanding of how and what must constantly evolve and advance. But right from the beginning we need to simultaneously talk about what and how of schooling. Without destination we cannot set direction and means of getting to destination. But again education is a process with no end but we still need to constantly ask ourselves, "what am I educating myself for"?
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        Nov 15 2013: Certainly, we need to have some kind of background to implement the system into the bigger picture. Without a shadow of doubt, a theoretical foundation is essential. However, there are many WHATs already, but almost no HOWs. This is what I was trying to highlight.

        Schooling itself encompasses many complex process, covers vast areas and employs a plethora of efforts and people, so tweaking the mechanism is not easy. Of course we can speak of more localized teaching endeavours, but since you pose more general questions, I think we should consider much wider contexts. Shaping the attitude of a prolonged learning process is multi-level and cannot be done in separation.

        Hence, the knowledge transfered during class must be not only attractive and fascinating, but also applicable and fathomable, mainly to create a chain of interdependencies between knowledge and life to enunicate the significance of the latter in our existence. Now imagine our contemporary school and its financial potential, let alone teachers who are very often unsuitable for the position and they have little idea how to handle the whole thing.
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    Nov 14 2013: Investigation of reality is a collective process. Social learning or collective generation and transmission of knowledge across generations — is a defining characteristic of our species. "Learning" in schools must also be a collective process. What would this mean in practice?
  • Nov 13 2013: I would like you to read and enjoy this story :

    The story goes like this ...

    Once upon a time a forest in the far away place got infected with the disease of Degrees and Certificates.The disease spread like wild fire and every creature in the forest got infected with it.

    One day a wolf in the forest was very hungry and in search of the food she started to wander in the forest.While she was still searching she saw that a rabbit was sitting at the bottom of the root of a big tree.She quietly approached the tree and as she was about to pounce upon the rabbit. The rabbit became alert and immediately fired her couple of questions.How should

    I know that you are wolf ? Do you have a certificate to prove that you are wolf?

    After hearing the questions the wolf stopped and asked the rabbit. What do you mean ?

    The rabbit said "Do you have a certificate to prove that you are a wolf?"

    The wolf said "No".

    The rabbit then said "Are you sure that you are wolf, you may be something else."

    The wolf got so much confused that she started to think "Am I a wolf or something else?"

    Now she was thinking that who will certify and give the certificate, that she is a wolf.If she cannot be proved that she is really a wolf then she will have to remain hungry and end her life.

    While she was thinking that who will give the certificate , at once the idea came to her mind that Lion is the king of the forest.

    Then she went to the Lion and narrated the whole episode to him.

    After listening to the who story, the lion said , I will certify and give you the certificate that you are wolf.

    The wolf recieved the certificate from lion and again went to the rabbit.

    She thought that the rabbit might have ran away to save his life. But the rabbit was honest and was waiting for the wolf.

    The wolf handed over the certificate to the rabbit.

    Continue ....