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Jaime Mogollón Michilot

Economic Student,

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How we can reduce poverty and inequality in developing countries?

I'm from Peru. A developing country. We are having a good perfomance in our economy, but we have to face a non resolved problem. One to 3 peruvians live on poverty conditions (see the link for wikipedia information bit.ly/17qs4Rw) .
How we can face this problem?

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    Sep 30 2013: We, in the developed world, are absolutely tied to this problem. First colonialization / slavery @#$% the balance of the world. Next, we have elected leaders and created a value system, which put economic growth above everything (though, economic growth for us). It is illusory that "everyone" benefits (i.e. when factory jobs that didn't exist, suddenly do in poorer countries). Poor governments sell their land rights and low ball their labourers in order to participate. And because they lay down for us, we effectively ghetto-ize these countries and make them our #$%^. It takes them years / generations to recover from the health, environmental impacts that industry has on their part of the world.

    We in the West need to stop taking (by way of consuming needlessly and incurring bad debts in order to do it) and start giving: our expertise, our compensation for ravaged land and people, our teachers, our scholarships.
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      Oct 1 2013: For anyone interested in a modicum of truth, the facts do not support this meme.

      This is economic illiteracy, to be exact it is willful ignorance of comparative advantage.
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        Oct 1 2013: Willful ignorance? People who have a selective filter for the primacy of economics over the environment, justice and equality have willful ignorance, Mr. Gilbert.

        In many cases, the comparative advantage isn't a natural occurrence a la perfect free market (btw, has there EVER been one?), but a forced situation by the heavier hand (i.e. developed countries). Countries like the US and ones in Europe need to have strong armed tactics to get their way around world markets:

        In the case of the World Bank lending money to Jamaica the "comparative advantage" of Ecuadorian bananas was forced onto Kingston's markets while their own rot on their trees; dairy farmers had to drain their milk tanks because US mid-western milk had to be favoured according to the lending rules.

        Large pharmaceutical companies bemoan the ability of Brazil, China and India to make generic drugs out of their newly patented ones fresh out of clinical trails. The companies have had to cut deals with these companies first in order to make any kind of net gain out of the situation, which usually turns into patent-protection lawsuits that drag on for more years than the marketability of the drug. How would you describe submitting to comparative advantage in this case? It's messy.

        And Peter Eigen, who quit the World Bank as its director in Kenya, describes the asymmetry between the developed and developing countries doing "business". Rampant corruption, collusion in unprotected, unregulated environments happened all the time. $300 million projects to be paid to European engineering firms, financing firms, insurance agencies etc. had no use, no economic benefits, no clients, but were hugely destructive were ushered through first. The less lucrative social projects never got through. It was large scale corruption. Bribery was routinely paid to win the privilege to do these lucrative projects. Private profits, public losses http://www.ted.com/talks/peter_eigen_how_to_expose_the_corrupt.html
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          Oct 1 2013: Yes willful ignorance.

          The World Bank does not have anything to do with comparative advantage, nor does the cronyism you mention

          The reason the economy exists at all or has raised the standard of living from hunter gatherer is comparative advantage.

          This is why 10 years ago the per capita annual income in China was $500, is today north of $7000, this has been going on since the beginning of trade.
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        Oct 1 2013: $7000, but at what uncalculated cost to its environment and health of its people? Have you ever been hospitalized for respiratory problems due to working in China? I have! Top coal mine deaths in the world to fuel this pace of growth. And how strange that it has to artificially manipulate the value of its exchange rate and even lend money to its top consumer in order to buy its comparatively advantageously made goods! A loan that isn't going to get repaid, btw.

        In a simpler society; in economic theory's vacuous illustrations, yes, comparative advantage has a logic to it.

        Well, you go tell the Jamaicans and people from the other 140 some odd countries that have had to deal with the repayment terms (and corruption, see above) of the World Bank, that the World Bank has nothing to do with their comparative advantage.

        Economics by now is a nasty mess of factors. Speaking about its parts as if each might somehow work in isolation of anything else is willfully ignorant.
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          Oct 1 2013: I don't know but likely higher than without the technology.

          Yup there are financial shenanigans with the Chinese government.

          Again the world bank has nothing to do with comparative advantage.

          It is it's own dynamic which is a good thing because it side steps politics and know besters.

          To the question of the OP it is clearly the answer to poverty. Nothing else has done any good, despite your conjecture to the contrary.
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          Oct 1 2013: Well Said Genevieve, I support your points.
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          Oct 1 2013: Kuldeep

          So you both subsribe to a similiar religion...
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    Oct 6 2013: well, the problem of poverty in developing countries is a broad subject. particularly in the case of my country (ghana) the education system is a total scrap. my reason being that, all what most education system in developing countries breeds are employees. the system shapes us to become employees rather than employers
    again, in many developed countries, 3 sectors of the economy work perfectly and that is the primary being agriculture, secondary being the manufacturing which is very critical and the third being service or consumption. in the case of many developing countries, there is nothing like manufacturing or the econd sector therefore the government and citizens alike depends much more on import. without the manufacturing sector also. there will always exist unemployment.

    as i have identified some which in my opinion thinks is the problem. hope most youth like myself from such developing countries can change our mind and do something good when we see or have the oputunity. i stand for correction.
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      . . 100+

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      Oct 6 2013: Dear Toffick,

      I can't tell you how happy it makes me to read your words. You maybe young but you do have what it takes to accomplish what you set out to do: wisdom.

      Wisdom to me means having three things: knowledge, resourcefulness and compassion. In order to bring your wisdom to the people, you need humility (which appears as a type of shyness - so your friends are right:). And you have that too. You are golden.

      I am sure you can find your own way to making a real difference for betterment of human lives. I am always learning myself. And figuring out is a perpetual flow. But I know there are two steps, first getting to know our real selves (who am I?) and second figuring out how to bring our help to reach the people (how can I help?).

      TED is a wonderful world of inspiration and I know you will listen carefully to the Talks and study the ways others have succeeded in being effective in their life.

  • Oct 3 2013: A large part of poverty is actually a state of mind, more than reality. What would be a huge benefit to the poor countries, is to separate themselves from the world economy in general. Become self reliant. Don't use money from other countries. Produce almost all of what they need internally, not get it from trading with other countries.

    The rich bleed the poor. That is how they become rich. So any time you deal with a rich nation, you are getting the life sucked out of your nation.

    The problem can be fixed on a local scale as well. There is lots of ways to solve the problem.

    It is usually a waste of time to try to get governments to do anything. We the people, need to make the change. People just don't accept new ideas, so it is near impossible to get the specific government people to accept them. There's a lot more people, so more chances of success getting people to accept the ideas.

    I think it comes down to the poor, must do it themselves. My plans are mostly centered around using the poor to end poverty. They might do it out of desperation. The rich have no incentive.

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      Oct 7 2013: .
      Yes, you are right!
      "A large part of poverty is actually a state of mind, more than reality"!

      This is because people do not know what the invalid (harmful) happiness is.
  • Sep 30 2013: I can think of a few simple things: education and opportunity which must exist together.
    This will reduce poverty and inequality.. but will never eradicate it completely.
  • Oct 21 2013: Poverty exists in two forms: relative and absolute. In the context of Developing Countries (DCs), it is often is mix of both poverty types we are concerned with. To some extent, people under relative poverty can push themselves to higher levels but at absolute poverty, people do need help to kick start progress. And the policies implemented to help these people should tackle the root cause of the problem and not simply aim to superficially address what can be seen in the society. Help such a monetary benefits are not effective. Help needs to be centred around the progress of the common citizen. And education is one of the most effective methods, commonly known. Another less common method is the empowering women. In DCs, there often exists a phenomenon called 'feminization of poverty', in which women do not have their basic rights, and are most often disregarded by the community. They should be more involved politically and economically in the alleviation of poverty, and the way to go for this is of course education for women first, no doubt.
  • Oct 2 2013: I am a firm believer that the best programs are ones that are grass roots and most if not all the work/plan is done by local individuals. The micro loan approach seems to work really well and helps the locals establish small industries. If they need help planning, the micro load agency teaches classes and gives suggestions but does not do the planning or work.

    Another characteristic is that the locals may be below the poverty line but they do not feel poor nor do they feel that they are victims. These feelings usually lead to incorrect expectations with poor planning and/or execution.
    • Oct 5 2013: Poor people must make the effort to help themselves and to be seen by the rest of the world to be doing so and thus attract Foreign Aid.

      Wayne I too believe micro business is a good way forward. The touchy subject of family planning and microchip contraception (Bayer put it out at $8.10 and lasts 5 years) helps tremendously. With less birth rates of 8 or 10 children down to 1 or 2, aid or tax money, then goes not just to food and water but to building homes, solar power, vehicles, permaculture, computers mobile phones small businesses.

      Some poor nations do not have income tax so do not help their poor.

      Many so called rich nations have their own poor (unemployed) and pensioners who live below the poverty line and this inequity needs addressing too.
      • Oct 7 2013: micro loan companies in the past have avoided being tied to a government local or outside for that very reason of control.

        Agreed, power, water, infrastructure, etc. are key but they come with products that the world there or outside world wants.
  • Oct 27 2013: All of the comments below have valid arguments for the reduction of poverty and inequality. From reading the article “The Kids Left Behind by the Boom”, one can assume that unequal opportunities in health and education are among the top causes for the widening gap in the economy. Without having a strong healthcare system in which the poor have equal access to basic human survival needs and medical care as the wealthy, people of rural Peru have a harder time protecting themselves from illness, malnutrition and all the other things affecting those in poverty. According to the article referenced above, a third of all rural children suffer chronic malnutrition and more than 70 percent in the Puno region have anemia before age 3. This is greatly due to the fact that a large number of those kids start working in the mining industry at the age of 5. With all of those children sick and doing hard labor, it makes sense how the education system in that area of Peru is not very prestigious. They’re being denied of a proper education simply because they happen to live in the wrong part of the country. It seems to be pure ignorance from the government to the rural areas of Peru because it appears that they’re not seeing what’s truly happening right under their nose. If the government could step up and give the children a better opportunity to flourish in their youth days with less illness, no child labor and better education, Peru could find the light at the end of this dark tunnel to aim towards a better future. As Frederick Douglas once said, “It’s easier to build strong children than to repair broken men.”
  • Oct 25 2013: In the Article; The Peru Kids Left Behind it talks about the problem that many Peruvians face when they live in mountainous ares of the country. In developed parts like Lima, living conditions are on the rise, and Peru is even rated as an upper-middle class economy. For children like Henrry everything is going against him and he has to struggle through lots of adversity. Already he has to survive in the cold and harsh weather, but he goes above and beyond, and wants to get an education. Health wise he has to deal with harmful chemicals like mercury and cyanide. Already the statistics are not in his favor, 78% of indigenous children live in poverty. Children like Henrry suffer through malnutrition, anemia and mercury poisoning. The families wish they could take their families off of the mountains and into a better setting, but the only thing preventing them is their lack of money. The main problem in Peru is that most of the wealth is being sent to big cities like Lima, and the people that live in rural areas are left in poverty.
  • Oct 25 2013: I believe we can reduce poverty and inequality in developing countries through education.
    Education has proven to be beneficial to everyone. Likewise, education leads to higher paying jobs such as doctors and lawyers. Furthermore, we need to focus on educating women and empowering them. One of the key differences between developed nations and developing nations is the rights and freedoms of women. By providing better education to rural areas in developing countries, poverty and inequality will decline.
  • Oct 25 2013: Although countries, such as Peru, are developing and their economy is doing well, there are still problems like inequality and poverty that exist. Something needs to be done to prevent these problems from growing and occuring more often. I think it's important that the country and its government understands why there is still poverty and inequality in Peru so that they know exactly how they can help. In a country where many children are not given the proper education because of their financial situation, as well as their race, it's easy to see how this growing country is forgetting about the people who need help the most. The government needs to step in and provide good education to these children so that they can have a brighter future and get good jobs to help the economy grow and expand later on. Being a country that is doing so well economically, the government should also be able to provide the families of these children who are suffering from poor education as well as malnutrition with services and goods to help them escape the difficulties of living in poverty. I think the government can play a big role in helping to reduce poverty and inequality in Peru.
    • Oct 25 2013: I agree, it is critical that the government of the country to step in to help a developing country when people are in need. The government is the only organization that can make a real difference in the lives of their people because other organizations can only scratch the surface of their problems.
  • Oct 24 2013: Many countries face a similar problem when it comes to poverty and that is the inequality between social classes. The best way to start closing the gap between the rich and poor is to get help and support from the government. By providing the poor with access to education, healthy food, clean water and options of employment, the government would be improving the lives of the lower class and creating a smaller gap between the haves and have not’s. In order for these changes to be implemented the government must have a strong and stable structure of its own. They then can have the lives of their people in mind and work on the necessary improvements. A thriving nation is one that can use its own resources to benefit its citizens and bring in a large amount of profit. Improving the lives of the lower class and striving for social equality within a country is not an easy or quick task to implement. Working towards the status of a developed nation while decreasing poverty takes a lot of work, but if a government is dedicate to help its people they will improve the country as a whole.
  • Oct 24 2013: The best way to reduce poverty levels and inequality in developing nations is to get the government onboard with closing the gap between the rich and poor. Affirmative action toward the public is the only way a developing country can solve the growing issue of inequality. By providing education, clean food and water, and new jobs for the poor, the country can both close the gap and go from developing to developed. For this to occur governments must be organized in a way that corruption and dictatorships are taken out of the picture. The government must choose to work for the people and help create a prosperous nation that uses their own resources correctly to maximize their success as a nation. It is a very difficult idea for most governments to wrap their heads around and would be very difficult to implement for even one country, but if they really wanted change this would be the ideal plan to reduce poverty in a country. The people will be on average healthier and happier with the new standard of living if all water and food is clean and they are educated into the 21st century.
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    Oct 14 2013: I know very little about Peru, and the little that I do know is informed by reading - however I have visited India and I am remotely (via internet) working with colleagues in rural and remote Kenya to address some of the issue surrounding poverty and in equality in the developing world. I don't consider myself an expert, just a thoughtful and humane human-being. In the little experience I have I would suggest that infrastructure might help to reduce some of the inequality, transportation, energy, schools, sanitation and healthcare. In the project I am working ok in Kenya part of the solution will come from green energy, Biogas in particular as a three pronged solution, with the Biogas being used for cooking in the main and to provide some night-time lighting. I appreciate that the situation in Rural and Remote Kenya is quite likely to be very different from the issues which face people in Peru - but my colleagues and I feel that enabling each village to be sustainable in their own energy production rather than adopting the western big grid models will work better especially as the farming communities in this part of Kenya are very poor and couldn't afford to pay energy bills if commercial providers came to town. Education is another way to help - I am sure that the Peruvian people irrespective of whether they live in rural and remote parts or the bigger towns and cities are very savvy and innovative.
    As Henry Woeltjen has also said - infrastructure is of major importance as this enables goods to be transported from one part of the country to another; and for this Government or regional municipalities need to be involved and provide a joined-up approach how to best serve the people in these communities.
    I appreciate there are lots of reason which contribute to poverty and inequality and there is no "one size fits all" solution so "cherry picking" the best mix on might also go some way to serve the people more effectively.
  • Dr Kasi

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    Oct 10 2013: I am not an Economist. Nature has given wealth even to developing countries. Unfortunately, we are not able fully harvest the potential of human resource. In the new world, we can sell everything, provided we are able to make things with competitive value addition and quality. It needs we should bring about a culture which is also supported by a big chunk of educated people who are not corrupt. Education is primary and a good culture development is secondary. Negative forces should be plugged. The main ones are alcohol, drugs and terrorism.All these are ideal. But do you have strong unselfish leadership?
  • Oct 8 2013: There is a positive correlation between freedom and economic prosperity for citizens. Free markets, free exchange of ideas, civil liberties, free trade, freedom to move about - all these will raise the standard of living. http://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_08_2_2_berggren.pdf
  • Oct 5 2013: In my view poverty is a product of inequality in all spheres of social, political and economic relations under a stable climatic and environmental conditions. However, greed is the major driver of this phenomenon called poverty that leads to all forms of social evils like corruption, injustice, oppression, terrorism, bad governance, inflation, abuse of labour and labour migration to mention but few. To this end, poverty can be eradicated fundamentally when equality exist among citizens, nations and civilizations towards a borderless social formation. In other words, economies of poor nations are integrated with rich nations based on shared civilization, which will in turn limits the gap between developed and developing nations; the concept of open globalization. For further understanding of this approach, please read the Open World System and Political Economy article on www.alternativesjournal.net.
    • Oct 6 2013: I agree with your opinion. It is a pretty diffuclt topic to describe and explain even if we know answers.
      My understanding about poverty and inequality is that it is very hard to approach and resolve unless the rich and high-class people share and concede what they have had. It seems unachievable for me - -.
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      Oct 7 2013: .
      Yes, education!

      Let all people know what invalid (harmful) happiness is.
      Then, there will be no greed ---- the root of all evil.
  • Oct 5 2013: Poverty is a severe injustice and abuse of human rights. One of the ways in which we can help eradicate the poverty and injustice experienced by those in developing countries is through education and in particular educating the young! It has always been said that children are the future of society, so developing countries should be investing heavily in educating those of the younger generation. This will ensure that these growing minds with limitless potential are nurtured and moulded into the future shapers of society.
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      Oct 7 2013: .
      Yes, education!

      Let all people know what invalid (harmful) happiness is.
      Then, there will be no greed ---- no evil root.
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    Oct 4 2013: Root out the corruption.

    Here there is enough for every ones needs but not for the greed.
  • Oct 4 2013: The countries with the worse poverty tend to have corruption. In natural resource based economies, the profits tend to go to the government and their cronies. This is hard to stop. Compare it to Norway which spreads it NR bounty amongst its entire nation improving schools and healthcare.

    The best way to end poverty and inequity is true democracy, rule of law, education, and base healthcare.
    A good TED talk is linked below:

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      Oct 7 2013: .
      Educate people to quit invalid (harmful) happiness
      ---- the root of all evil.
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    Oct 2 2013: Jaime, During the period of 1968 - 1975 the elected official made a radical change to communism and attempted income redistribution, creation of a large state owned sector, and socialism with resulted in entitlements that could not be supported. Despite the failure at all levels, these reforms were not reversed until the 1990's. New leadership ended price controls, protectionism, restrictions on foreign direct investment, and most state ownership of companies. Reforms have permitted sustained economic growth since 1993. Recent economic growth has been fueled by macroeconomic stability, improved terms of trade, and rising investment and consumption.

    Addressing poverty and inequality: 75.9% live in urban areas and 24.1% in rural areas. The life styles are most dramatically demonstrated when side by side comparison of the urban VS rural live are compared. I would be safe in saying that the farmers who have lived off the land for many generations and bartered for goods and needs would not know how poor they are. You say 1 in 3 ... Wikipedia says only 9.8% live in poverty. Certainly not one third by their accounting. We make a big deal of a whole village that only takes in $50 in currency in a year. There is no record of anyone dying from hunger ... no power no problem .... no cloths no problem .... no car no problem. Why must we try to change everything we come in contact with ... In that society if I had ten cows I might be "wealthy" and much respected .... but some social worker comes along and says you live in poverty.

    There will always be a top and a bottom. In the USA the "do gooders" say we must help the poor ... we build housing complexes and they tear them up ... the government enact entitlements and they refuse to work because they are getting everything for free ... so why work. We now face generational welfare families.

    Be cautious of social programs and welfare handouts. There is no such thing as a "free lunch" ...
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      Oct 2 2013: Mr. Winner.
      I can see you have a deep knowledge about peruvian economic history. You've made a good resumen of peruvian economic phases. And yes, peruvian GDP is in growing since 1993, if financial crisis is not considered, although we have an feedstock-based economy.

      Actually, Wikipedia says that in Peru the poverty level dropped from 36.2% in 2008 to 25.8% in the past year. We cand find similar numbers on peruvian statistics institute called INEI (you can see more in spanish and english here http://www.inei.gob.pe/).

      I think poverty is not about what we can buy with some money. I think poverty goes beyond and it is about oportunities to be better, about indivudual elections, health care, education and inclusive human rights. In my country kids in peruvian andes froze to death (see this link in spanish bit.ly/NQ8HmW). The poverty have several edges.

      We don't need people that bring us charity, we need more skills that the only way we can acquire them is through quality education.We have to teach how to catch fishes.

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        Oct 2 2013: I can see the confusion here ... in the last sentence in Wikipedia (Peru) under economics it states "According to 2010 data, 31.3% of its total population is poor, including 9.8% that lives in poverty.[63]"

        However in the third paragraph of the opening comments it states: " It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 28.7 percent."

        Same article ... different "facts".

        The first one is based on Human Development Index (HDI). "the HDI can be viewed as an index of “potential” human development that could be achieved if there were no inequality)".[3]

        The second one is based on the average income and a line drawn at which point defines the difference between poor and poverty.

        As a economic student I am sure you are aware of the Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq and this formula for HDI. So the 28.7% "fact" is not a fact at all. Just a what if .... (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices used to rank countries into four tiers of human development as stated in your paragraph three.

        I admire education ... but in this case we do not need a formula ... we need real people on the ground with a heart, soul, and some common sense to compare apples to apples and the real world.

        Then you can begin to plan for a working solution.

        Again thanks. I wish you well. Bob.
  • Oct 1 2013: We hosted a student from southern Brazil at our company in Canada as part of her languages training in business. What was interesting was to talk about some of the challenges to building her family's business as compared to our experience. There were lack of Infrastructure components in that area of Brazil which made it difficult for companies to compete in the same way that non-developing countries could. The question then became, what were the factors which would be needed for the government components (1) knowledge, 2) capable and ethical leaders) to successfully support the economy, as well as sufficient sources of funds for this. For example, having a functional road infrastructure for qualified industries. There is also the consideration of local natural resources - does the country have a starting point with which to bring international trade, to satisfy its local needs locally (e.g. can provide its own food, et al) - this would lend towards a net "trade deficit or gain". Available education is a factor as well - can enough of the population qualify as skilled workers of a given type to attract investment to the area? War and cultural/religious conflict, and disease/lack of health can decimate local economies as well. Recognizing all persons as being of value is important. This is the first step in empowering at the grass roots level along with access to information. Hans Rosling's Ted Talk also mentioned Technology – labor saving devices to free up time so there is a chance to do more.

    I suspect that the challenges of each developing country are unique, and that the challenge of poverty is always a complex issue. I think the world is making progress towards increased standards of living across many countries, and I sincerely hope to see this continue.
  • Oct 1 2013: The Meek shall inherit the earth.........not through rugged individualism & fierce competition. Play a different game altogether.
  • Sep 30 2013: Elect people who are motivated to care for people. People not influenced by money. People who are willing to do their best and serve one term. People who will not expect pay after leaving government. You can use the US government as an example that does not work.
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    Sep 30 2013: This is an issue of unfair systems; and in some cases, the entitlement/poverty mentality of the poor.
    It is not a problem that can be solved by a single simple solution. The poor must be willing to take responsibility for their lives, by pursuit of education and enlightenment, and by hardwork. Governments should provide enabling environments for small-scale business, so as to encourage new ones and growth of the already established one.

    Then comes the issue of greed. Legislations can not stop greed; it is in the heart of a powerful section of the society.

    In the end, this is a battle against greed and laziness. With the change required of the greedy and lazy I'd say, "Good luck on this".
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    Sep 30 2013: Good question Jaime, I would say A society formed of Common interest to eradicate poverty and work for the welfare of people can reduce poverty and inequality, this would be more of theoretical but CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) is one such initiative Models that are adopted by Companies for the upliftment of the Society. Shurely goodwill and Support from government would bring in additional advantage to the Society.
  • Oct 28 2013: I personally think that to have the development of countries such as Peru and others worldwide are successful, they must first start at the base of the people. Unfortunately for countries such as Peru, much of the base of the population live in poverty conditions. I personally think to organizations such as Feed My Starving Children to help combat these issues. By feeding those children the necessary nourishment, they are able to avoid the question of, “Where will my next meal come from?” In the example that I found in the New York Times, titled “The Kids Left Behind by the Boom”, one child by the name of Henrry Ochochoque, a 12 year old living in poverty conditions in Peru; was “Undernourished, anemic, with a brain slowed by toxic chemicals.” (“The Kids Left Behind by the Boom”, Marie Arana”). Personally, I believe that the problem can be solved by improving the situation of the impoverished people’s of these nations to have a better standard of living. Whether that can be giving those better housing, cleaner areas, or by simply giving them all 3 square meals a day, these things can be solved by simply increasing their lives. By simply doing one thing to increase people’s lives, each and every country with impoverished people can have all of their problems solved simply and effectively.
  • Oct 28 2013: Poverty is a growing issue among many countries - not just Peru. Like many others have commented we must look at the causes and issues that go along with poverty and inequality. In order to bridge the gap between the haves and have nots in Peru the government must focus on the have nots. By this i mean that instead of focusing on the successful city of Lima, where the people are wealthy and the economy booming, and making it even better they need to focus on the outside of Lima. Outside of Lima conditions are terrible and the rural poverty rate is 54% (The Kids Left Behind the Boom, Marie Arana).
    Once the government switches their focus there can then be improvement. To begin the country needs to put a large amount of their budget towards education. The lack of education is a major factor in poverty and also creates a large gap between haves and have nots. Those that have a higher education are proven to be more successful and essentially become a "have". By making education more of a priority this can in return also reduce unemployment rates and create more able workers.
    Another action that the government can take has to deal with health care. One of the reasons for the large gap between the haves and have nots has to do with health. 70% of the children in Peru have anemia before age 3 (The Kids Left Behind the Boom, Marie Arana). That is a staggering number that with a little bit of government involvement can be reduced. By setting up better health care plans and making medicine more available many lives would be saved. With better health care the country of Peru would over all improve and the citizens could be more likely to be successful.
    Overall the government must focus on education and health care in order to improve the issues of poverty and inequality. If they decide to not get involved and focus only on improving the already improved poverty and inequality will not be fixed.
  • Oct 28 2013: Poverty is still a very large issue in many countries today. Although Peru may be considered to be prospering many parts are being left behind. Poverty is not the sole issue, and there are many factors that play in and add up to the overall problem of poverty. Two areas hit hard in the article, “The Kids Left Behind by the Boom”, were education and healthcare. One key area that needs to be addressed is equal spread of education throughout. In Peru for example there are some areas that are well educated, but then there are areas like where Hennry attended that lack in educating. If Henry were to stay in La Rinconada, Peru instead of moving to Juliaca, Henrry Ochochoque's goals would more than likely not have been met. Based on school location the amount of value given to education varies dramatically. Another area that is leaving parts out is healthcare. According to the article Hennry is too small for his age. Hennry is a twelve year old and is four feet, two inches, which is the average size of an eight year old in America. He is below normal hight as well as undernourished and anemic. Anemic is very common in fact more than 70 percent develop anemia before the age of three. Poverty is very concerning and in order to fix this, other areas need to be address first to lead to ending poverty.
  • Oct 28 2013: Poverty is viewed as one of the biggest problems in our current society. In order to reduce poverty and inequality in developing countries, there needs to be a shift in focus to the education of those living in poverty. In developing countries like Peru, a child living in the rural area of the country doesn’t get as good of an education as a child living in the urban areas, and they usually begin working at the young age of five. According to the New York Times article, “If they attend school, they do so for only a few years and in Spanish — not Quechua or Aymara, the languages spoken at home.” The government needs to establish a progressive education system throughout the entire country, not only the richer areas. Children are the future of society, so the government of developing countries like Peru should invest in proper education. This will hopefully lead to a higher employment rate and eventually progress the country as a whole, instead of the current uneven development.
  • Oct 28 2013: The problem today with developing countries is that they are growing quickly in a positive way, but the income and poverty level gap increase as the country continues to grow. In the article "The Peru Kids Left Behind by the Boom" by Marie Arana, it is outlined that the rich class is composed of mostly white people who continue to get richer while the lower class consists of those with darker skin colors. Life is especially hard for indigenous children of Peru, 78% of children live in poverty, and more than 70% of children in Peru have anemia by age two. The first step in making improvements overall is to improve the general health of the country. Puna is almost completely ignored by the government, recieving no help or support. Help from the government would result in an improvment for all in all aspects of living. By improving health levels, living conditions with improve for all, allowing kids like Henry to have the ability to get ahead in live without being set back by their financial situation. Another way to change the class gap is to help to educate children. Children in Peru are pulled out of school at a young age to work as miners. This puts them at a disadvantage immediately. Children are not able to move forward if they wish to make a career change because they are not educated to do anything else. In any situation. It is crucial that the government is involved. without government help, there is no efficient way to make a change. the government needs to be fully committed to helping citizens and raising the living conditions for those who live in poverty. If there is no one to help, there will be no change.