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What has influenced the depiction of bionic characters in science fiction of the past 150 years?

The representation of cyborgs, bionic characters, humanoid robots and androids in science fiction has developed from 'spare part surgery' human-machine hybrids (The Ablest Man in the World, Edward Page Mitchell - 1879) to sophisticated replications of the human, with advanced intellect and even emotional capabilities (Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? Philip K Dick - 1968) (Super-toy trilogy, Brian Aldiss). What has been the biggest scientific influence on this - advancements in biotechnology technologies, computing or has science fiction been the thing to influence science fact?

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    Sep 10 2013: Karel Capek invented the word robot to depict automats with human behaviors in R.U.R and Isaacv Asimov created the rules of robotics, rules that are always in use today