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What have been the major influences on the depiction of androids in science fiction over past 150 years?

The representation of cyborgs, bionic characters, humanoid robots and androids in science fiction has developed from 'spare part surgery' human-machine hybrids (The Ablest Man in the World, Edward Page Mitchell - 1879) to sophisticated replications of the human, with advanced intellect and even emotional capabilities (Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? Philip K Dick - 1968) (Super-toy trilogy, Brian Aldiss). What has been the biggest scientific influence on this - advancements in biotechnology technologies, computing or has science fiction been the thing to influence science fact?

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  • Sep 9 2013: Data from Star Trek, and I, Robot by Isaac Asimov are the two most important works to the depiction of androids IMHO. Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, Alien, and Metropolis are probably also fairly important, haven't read/watched them yet. :/ For cyborgs there is also the borg, robocop, and cybermen.

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