Noor Afsha

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Is an atoms similar from the atom of big band time?

An atom is like a cloud of charges, the surrounding being negatively charged while the nucleus being positively charged with neutron in it [i have no understanding about the neutron.

i have few questions...

1. After big bang, were all the atoms generated?
2. is there any change in the structure of the atoms since then?
3. do we have equal number of atoms since the big bang till now? because we can not generate anything,,just can change the form?

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    Jun 16 2012: 1) I'm not sure about the details of the early stages of the big bang and the formation of matter and energy and dark matter and energy etc. I'll leave this to an expert.

    In general, my understanding of current science sometime after the big bang is the first atoms were hydrogen (1 proton) and maybe helium (2 protons) etc. No heavy elements like iron etc.

    Gravity caused some of these first elements to form into the first generation of stars. The nuclear reactions inside these formed most of the elements we have on earth. These stars exploded and later formed new stars and planets with Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Iron etc.

    Inside stars light elements form heavier elements via nuclear fission.

    I guess black holes and netron star situations change the structure

    Most chemical reactions are just rearrangements of existing atoms usually in molecules of more than one atom to new molecular combinations. An atom may gain, lose or share electrons but they are not created or destroyed in ch .

    I don't know if new atoms are springing into existence from nothing or energy. I'm not sure if atoms are being converted completely to energy, but maybe crushed in black holes etc

    2) Atoms undergoing chemical reactions change energy states and electron configurations.
    Same with atoms exposed to energy or electromagnetic forces. Heat some materials and the emit photons
    These cases keep the same number of protons e.g. the Iron atoms stay iron atoms.

    Atoms in the stars and man made nuclear reactors do change from one element to another.
    Fusion in stars 2 smaller atoms form one larger one + heat
    Humans have made some elements beyond those found in nature but these are usually unstable.
    Fission - large atoms split into smaller atoms + heat used to generate

    3. Chemical reactions do not change the number of atoms. Nuclear reactions do. My guess is we have less atoms than immediately after the big bang as some of these have formed heavier elements, or destroyed in black holes.
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    Jun 12 2012: bear in mind that we have almost no clue what happened after the big bang, or even if it happened or not. we have models that are somewhat explaining what we see, and have some supporting evidence. so all i can tell is how things are according to the model.

    soon after the big bang, some material formed atoms, others did not. some material became photons, free electrons, free protons, neutrinos, other barions, etc. later, all sort of things happened. some of these materials transformed into atoms later. some atoms were destroyed. the resulting matter might form other atoms even later. some material formed stars, in which temperature tears atoms apart. then their nuclei merge (fuse). later some stars explode, and throw this new material out. some of this star material forms atoms again. some atoms are made of matter that went in and out of atoms many times, and in an out of stars many times. probably the initial atoms were almost exclusively hydrogen, possibly with some helium here and there. all the heavy atoms are results of processes that came much later. this process is ongoing, and won't stop until all the matter is collected in black holes, or forever separated into frozen death by the expansion of space-time.

    to make things worse, matter can form black holes and neutron stars, which are non-atomic forms of matter. black holes and neutron stars continue to "eat" atomic (and nonatomic) matter and makes "neutron degenerate matter" or whatever-in-a-black-hole matter out of them, which is their composition.

    even worse, atoms also being destroyed in large gas giant planets. near the center, the pressure reforms hydrogen into a form called "electron degenerate matter". this is a nonatomic form of matter. hydrogen atoms jump in and out of that supercompressed core, so huge number of atoms are destroyed and created simultaneously every second.
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    Jun 13 2012: Thanks a lot Kritz....

    Well, how much sure we are that big bang actually happened? [hope you dont mind telling]

    so, we might not having any idea that whether there was matter or not..juts before big bang....!

    well, there can me many questions can be asked further....like why atoms happened the way it is now?

    is there any concept of perfect mettle? e.g., Gold.... can we take it as a mettle that can not be further improved?

    when atoms are distroyed...do we get energy?

    I am sorry if i asked too much questions.
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      Jun 13 2012: hard question, how sure it is. astronomers are pretty sure, but you know, it is in their character. scientists were always sure about what they were telling. let's say we have several evidence all pointing in this direction, and no other explanations were presented so far. but if you don't like the idea, there is still hope :)

      atoms created and destroyed all the time. life is created and destroyed all the time. why we have the animals and plants we have now? why we have the people we have now? the answer of science is that ... it just happened. like fallen tree leaves in storm, they end up somewhere, but there is no logic in it. remember, that is the scientific answer, might be not the final one.

      similarly, no perfect one exists. which is the perfect animal? who is the perfect person? these values are human values, nature does not care.

      when atoms destroyed, we either get energy or not, depending on what happens. many times it needs energy to destroy them.
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        Jun 14 2012: Thanks again Krisz....

        i think what you are saying is actually correct. Science does not give all the answer as a final answer but the most probable one and most suitable one. And it always leave 5% area to be fallen wrong. and this uncertainty leads to the progress of science.

        i have many questions regarding the theory of evolution and also the Big bang. i think we jut stop at the point of Big Bang and we cant go before it!

        What do you think...i mean in your personal opinion.... The evolution is still going on in human? see X-men kind of thing may look comic...but can we hope that Human can get some powers like breathing under see without having any tool of it?
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          Jun 14 2012: i don't need to formulate opinion on the speed of evolution, because it is researched and known. actually, human evolution is faster now then say 500 thousand years ago. much faster. in what direction it goes, i don't know, but it does not matter too much. the evolution is slow, even if faster than ever. civilization, society, technology changes much much faster. our world can change entirely within a 100 years due to technology. but evolution can not bring new things any less than a few tens of thousands of years. so from our viewpoint, evolution is in a standstill, no matter how fast it goes in its own timeframe.
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      Jun 16 2012: Perfection is a human concept,
      How would you define perfection for a metal/element or atom?